Benefits and Challenges of Innovating Public Services Through E-government.

This is my submitted essay for professor Ian Miles’s Service Innovation class. I got a really bad grade for this essay, probably the worst grade in my master’s course. However i believe there is some useful info in this essay and hopefully by posting here, it could be a stern reminder for me to keep getting better better again in writing. I hope it helps. 

E-government is an innovation in public services which aim to simplify and amplify the relationship between government and the citizens (Rodríguez, et al., 2011). The technology was seen not only to as a tool public service delivery but also a bigger platform which government can perform better in multiple aspects. Seeing this potential, increasing number of country are developing and implementing e-government. According to UN E-Government report, the number of countries providing services through the internet jumped five times, from 33 to 148 in the span of 2003 to 2016 (UN, 2016). However, the successful rate is very low due to the various challenges both from the technical and non-technical side.

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South Korean booth in UN Public Service Forum (source)

This essay attempt to discuss what is the prospect and challenges of e-government implementation as a public service innovation. First, the trend and historical context which help the conception of e-government will be explained. Following that, the essay will discuss several definitions and classification of e-government to shape the understanding about this technology. Subsequently, potential benefits and promises of e-government will be described. In the final chapter, several challenges regarding e-government implementation will be discussed along with ways to address that. Continue reading

Nanotechnology in China: An Analysis of International Competitiveness

This is my essay for professor Marcella Miozzo‘s International Competitiveness class. Previously, i posted the power point presentation for this topic as well. Links to all the reference can be found in the bottom of the article. Hope its useful. 

Nanotechnology is the manipulation and production of material within a very small scale (nanoscale). It is a complex technology which encompass multiple science discipline and industries (Islam & Miyazaki, 2009). Due to this multidisciplinary nature, nanotechnology is predicted to revolutionise the landscape of multiple industry sectors and become the foundation of the next industrial revolution (Moreira & Vale, 2016). This promising potential has attracted many countries to invest in the research and development this technology. Interestingly, this strategic scientific endeavor is not only pursued by developed economies. Newly industrialised economies are also investing heavily in nanotechnology to catch up with more established countries, increase competitiveness and stimulate growth (Moreira & Vale, 2016) (Niosi & Reid, 2007).

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Illustration of nanotechnology (image source)

One of the newly industrialized country which gaining solid grounds in nanotechnology is China. Since the late 1980s, the country has been investing massively in nanotechnology to build international competitiveness in science and technology (Bai, 2005). This effort has started to bear fruits especially in science and research indicators. The number of China nano-science publication surpassed the United States since 2004 (Appelbaum & Parker, 2008).  Number of China’s share in global nano-patent also doubled in less than a decade (Appelbaum, et al., 2016). In these two indicators, China has achieved international leadership.

This essay will discuss China’s nanotechnology development in the context of international competitiveness. The historical context of China endeavour in nanotech will be described first. Following that, factors supporting nanotechnology will be discussed using Malerba’s sectoral system of innovation theory as a lens (Malerba, 2004). Finally, the benefits of network will be explained using Podolny and Leung pipe, prism, and sponge metaphor (Podolny, 2001) (Leung, 2013). Continue reading

Adaptasi Proses Belajar Di Inggris

Banyak perbedaan antara dua semester perkuliahan Manchester dan pengalaman saya sebelumnya di dunia professional. Mulai dari proses belajar, ekspektasi dan deliverables, dibutuhkan beberapa penyesuaian sebelum akhirnya saya mendapat ritme kerja yang nyaman. Ditambah lagi sistem pendidikan yang jauh berbeda antara di Indonesia dan Inggris dan juga jurusan yang tidak linear dengan S1 sehingga pengalaman saya ketika sarjana tidak serta merta aplikatif di studi pasca-sarjana sekarang.

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Sebagian materi kuliah yang saya jalani di Manchester

Didalam tulisan ini, saya menuliskan beberapa tips yang sangat membantu proses belajar S2 disini. Meminjam konsep retrospective Scrum, tips saya tuliskan setelah merefleksikan kesalahan dan berpikir apa yang seharusnya saya bisa lakukan untuk memperbaiki kesalahan tersebut.  Beberapa tips juga baru saya sadari setelah akhir semester 2 sehingga jika dilakukan lebih awal, hasil yang saya dapatkan bisa lebih maksimal. Harapan saya, semoga tulisan ini bisa membantu teman teman yang ingin berkuliah diluar agar cepat beradaptasi dengan proses belajar yang baru.

Model pembelajaran di jurusan saya Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship, sudah saya jelaskan sedikit di tulisan sebelumnya. Sila baca ini terlebih dahulu agar lebih mengerti konteks yang saya tulis disini.  Continue reading

Penggunaan Layanan Finansial Seluler Untuk Memperluas Jangkauan Bantuan Sosial Pemerintah

Dengan jumlah penduduk miskin sebanyak 28 juta orang (BPS, 2016), penanggulangan kemiskinan menjadi salah satu tantangan yang dihadapi Indonesia ke depan. Angka kemiskinan yang tinggi berpotensi membawa efek domino yang lebih besar seperti berkurangnya produktivitas ekonomi, menurunnya tingkat kesehatan masyarakat dan juga peningkatan angka kriminalitas. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, pemerintah Indonesia di tahun 2010 membentuk Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (TNP2K). Berada langsung di bawah wakil presiden, TNP2K bertanggung jawab mengeksekusi program pengentasan kemiskinan seperti peningkatan kapasitas ekonomi, jaminan kesehatan dan juga bantuan sosial. TNP2K juga bertanggung jawab atas basis data terpadu yang berisi informasi sosial ekonomi dan demografi penduduk miskin di Indonesia.

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Contoh skema penggunaan layanan finansial seluler untuk distribusi bantuan sosial

Salah satu instrumen bantuan sosial yang digunakan TNP2K adalah transfer tunai bersyarat bernama Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH). PKH memberikan uang tunai kepada rumah tangga sangat miskin sekaligus mewajibkan mereka untuk memenuhi persyaratan terkait pendidikan dan kesehatan. Sebagai contoh, resipien PKH yang memiliki anak balita wajib memenuhi kewajiban imunisasi lengkap sebelum menerima bantuan. Saat ini, dana PKH di salurkan secara tunai melalui kantor pos dan juga transfer bank melalui akun bank BRI. Continue reading

Sifat Kontra Intuisi dari Inovasi

Perkembangan eksponensial teknologi informasi dalam satu dekade terakhir menghasilkan kelas konsumen teredukasi dengan ekspektasi yang semakin hari semakin meningkat. Pelaku bisnis, entrepreneur dan bahkan sektor publik dipaksa berinovasi dengan laju yang lebih cepat dan lebih efektif dibanding sebelumnya. Di tahun 1999, The Economist menulis bahwa inovasi menjadi agama baru perindustrian di penghujung abad 20. Organisasi yang inovatif memiliki produktivitas jauh lebih tinggi dibanding yang tidak. Inovasi menjadi cawan suci yang menjanjikan kejayaan ditengah gencarnya kompetisi.

Meningkatnya peran inovasi membuat populernya materi materi terkait. Siapa dari kita yang belum melihat video stay hungry stay foolish ?. Buku bertema inovasi juga kerap menjadi best seller. Yang paling terkenal diantaranya : Innovators Dilemma yang mengenalkan konsep inovasi disruptif. Sejarah inovasi komputasi dalam buku The Innovators dari Walter Issacson dan juga tips memanage kreativitas di Creativity Inc dari Ed Catmull.

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Salah satu buku tentang inovasi yang menarik buat saya adalah How To Fly A Horse dari Kevin Ashton, pionir dari teknologi internet of things. Buku ini mencoba membantah mitos bahwa inovasi, mencipta dan kreativitas adalah hak istimewa segelintir orang yang dianggap jenius. Kevin mencoba menjelaskan inovasi dari unit yang paling sederhana yaitu kerja keras. Dia juga mencoba mematahkan miskonsepsi bahwa proses inovatif terjadi secara magis, seperti bohlam diatas kepala yang tiba tiba menyala. Miskonsepsi ini terjadi karena beberapa karakteristik dari inovasi bersifat kontra intuisi (counter intuitive) sehingga rentan untuk disalahartikan.

Memahami sifat sifat kontra intuisi ini krusial untuk mengerti bagaimana inovasi dihasilkan dan menghindari kesalahan umum yang terjadi ketika membangun proses inovasi. Continue reading

Beyond ride sharing ban: potential new regulations in Indonesia that may affect startups

The recent controversy of ride sharing apps prohibition has left a bitter taste for Indonesian startup ecosystem. Not only causing a huge uproar in social media, this move sparked immediate response from members of people representative council, former Indonesian VP Boediono up to president Jokowi himself. In less than 24 hour, Transport Minister Ignasius Jonan has been forced to revert this decision due to the amount of negative reaction from the public.

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On one side, the backlash showed that ride sharing apps have started to become an integral part of society especially in Jakarta. A good progress considering how recent the services was introduced in this market (Gojek started in 2010 while GrabTaxi entered Indonesia just last year). On the other side, the controversy highlighted further one of the biggest challenge in this country startup scene : uncertain regulation.

So looking forward, are there any other regulatory development that Indonesian startup founder and investors should be cautious about ? Below are some of my observation. Continue reading

Why Ebook Is Not Disruptive (Yet)

One of my favorite strategy blog Stratechery recently has a great piece on ebooks. Apparently in 2015, the sales of physical books in the United States is still going strong while ebook fall down 10 percent. The market share of ebooks also did not grow very much, still steady at 20% for several years. The trend is even more disconcerting  due to the massive sales decline on ebook reader. Having single purpose device such as Kindle are apparently too cumbersome for general population. It is still too early to pull the verdict, but things are not going well for the state of electronic books.

Source: death to stock photos
Source: death to stock photos

This is very interesting because usually the emergence of the electronic media will disrupt the old establishment of physical ones. Case in point, the introduction of itunes and other digital music platform had brought CD sales to its knees. Disruptive Innovation as famously interpreted by Clayton Christensen. So why does this not happen with ebook ?. In the stratechery piece, there are three factors which held the adoption of ebooks: Price, Experience and Modularization.

Reflecting it to my experience as an avid book reader and the market condition in Indonesia, In this post, I will relate some of this drawback factors discussed in stratechery post to my personal experience. I will discuss some of the reasons which makes ebook worth to try and why physical books will still going to be around for the foreseeable future. Continue reading